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Bioremediation

Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition.

Feces
Feces are the solid or semisolid metabolic waste from an animal's digestive tract, discharged through the anus or cloaca during a process called defecation.

Excreta: Urine and Feces together are called excreta

Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.

Sewage is a waste water carried in waste in soultion or suspension that is intended to be removed from toilets to treatment tank thru sewer net work Also known as domestic waste water. it is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical and toxic constituents, and its bacteriologic status. swege is consit of Grey and balck water

Greywater: is all waste water generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination,

Sources of greywater include, sinks, showers, baths, cloths washing machines or dish washers.

Blackwater: is waste water generated in flush toilets contain feces ,or other human body waste &toilet paper.

Sewage is the waste matter carried off by sewer drains and pipes.

Sewer may refer to: Part of sewerage, the infrastructure that conveys sewage. Sanitary sewer, a system of pipes used to transport sewage - several types of sanitary sewers can be distinguished. Storm drain, a collection and transportation system for storm water.

A combined sewer is a sewage collection system of pipes and tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff. Combined sewers can cause serious water pollution problems during combined sewer overflow (CSO) events when wet weather flows exceed the sewage treatment plant capacity.[1] This type of gravity sewer design is no longer used in building new communities (because current design separates sanitary sewers from runoff), but many older cities continue to operate combined sewers

A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment or disposal. Sanitary sewers are part of an overall system called sewerage or sewage system. Sewage may be treated to control water pollution before discharge to surface waters. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas also carry industrial wastewater.

Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to transport sewage alone. In municipalities served by sanitary sewers, separate storm drains may be constructed to convey surface runoff directly to surface waters. Sanitary sewers are distinguished from combined sewers, which combine sewage with stormwater runoff in the same pipe. Sanitary sewer systems are considered beneficial because they avoid combined sewer overflows.

sewerage refers to the physical facilities (e.g., pipes, lift stations, and treatment and disposal facilities) through which sewage flows. Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove these contaminants and produce environmentally safe treated wastewater (or treated effluent).

Organics – A determination of the concentration of carbon- based (i.e., organic) compounds aimed at establishing the relative “strength” of wastewater (e.g., Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and Oil and Grease (O&G)).

Solids – A measurement of the concentration of particulate solids that can dissolve or suspend in wastewater (e.g., Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Volatile Solids (TVS), and Total Fixed Solids (TFS)),

Nutrients – A measurement of the concentration of targeted nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus) that can contribute to the acceleration of eutrophication (i.e., the natural aging of water bod- ies)

What is a sewage treatment plant?

Sewage treatment is the process of removing the contaminants from sewage to produce liquid and solid (sludge) suitable for discharge to the environment or for reuse. It is a form of waste management. ... Sewage treatment results in sewage sludge which requires sewage sludge treatment before safe disposal or reuse.

Is it sewerage or sewage?

Sewage is the waste matter carried off by sewer drains and pipes. Sewerage refers to the physical facilities (e.g., pipes, lift stations, and treatment and disposal facilities) through which sewage flows. (b) What is the difference between lateral and intercepting sewers?

What is water and waste management?

Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. Wastewater can originate from a combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and from sewer inflow or infiltration.

What is the wastewater treatment?

Wastewater treatment is a process to convert wastewater - which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use - into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused.

What is domestic effluent?

Liquid waste flowing out of a factory, farm, commercial establishment, or a household into a water body such as a river, lake, or lagoon, or a sewer system or reservoir. Waste discharged into air is called emission.

What is in domestic wastewater?

Wastewater treatment: Types of sewage. There are three types of wastewater, or sewage: domestic sewage, industrial sewage, and storm sewage. Domesticsewage carries used water from houses and apartments; it is also called sanitary sewage. Industrial sewage is used water from manufacturing or chemical processes.

How does a water treatment plant works?

Most treatment plants were built to clean wastewater for discharge into streams or other receiving waters, or for reuse. Years ago, when sewage was dumped into waterways, a natural process of purification began... The basic function of wastewater treatment is to speed up the natural processes by which water is purified.

The Sewage Treatment Plant process is similar to the way that a Septic Tank works but mechanical components provide a process to help break down solids to produce a cleaner, more environmentally friendly effluent.

What is a waste of water?

Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Municipal wastewater (also called sewage) is usually conveyed in a combined sewer or sanitary sewer, and treated at a wastewater treatment plant.

What is a sewage disposal?

Sewage disposal is the process in which sewage is transported through cities and inhabited areas to sewage treatment plants, where it is then treated to remove contaminants to produce environmentally-safe waste.

How wastewater is treated?

Wastewater treatment. The major aim of wastewater treatment is to remove as much of the suspended solids as possible before the remaining water, called effluent, is discharged back to the environment. As solid material decays, it uses up oxygen, which is needed by the plants and animals living in the water.

How does the sewage treatment plant works?

Later, this material, known as grit and screenings, is taken to a landfill for environmentally safe disposal. The sewage then flows to primary settling tanks where up to 60% of the solids in the waste stream settle out as a mixture of sludge and water. This primary treatment removes very few toxic chemicals.

What is preliminary treatment?

This is achieved by removing from the wastewater any constituents which can clog or damage pumps, or interfere with subsequent treatment processes. Preliminary treatment devices are, therefore, designed to : (1) Remove or to reduce in size the large, entrained, suspended or floating solids.

What is primary treatment of wastewater?

Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment.

What is the purpose of primary sedimentation?

The primary sedimentation tanks are designed to reduce the velocity of the wastewater flow for organic solids (called raw sludge) to settle. Scrapers present in the tank move continuously along the floor of the tank to deposit the raw sludge in hoppers for removal.

What is a grit chamber and how is it used?

wastewater treatment: Primary treatment. Grit chambers are long narrow tanks that are designed to slow down the flow so that solids such as sand, coffee grounds, and eggshells will settle out of the water. Grit causes excessive wear and tear on pumps and other plant equipment.

What is screen chamber?

A bar screen is a mechanical filter used to remove large objects, such as rags and plastics, from wastewater. It is part of the primary filtration flow and typically is the first, or preliminary, level of filtration, being installed at the influent to a wastewater treatment plant.

What is the purpose of secondary wastewater treatment?

Secondary treatment is a treatment process for wastewater (or sewage) to achieve a certain degree of effluent quality by using a sewage treatment plant with physical phase separation to remove settleable solids and a biological process to remove dissolved and suspended organic compounds.

What is the tertiary treatment of sewage?

Tertiary treatment is the final cleaning process that improves wastewater quality before it is reused, recycled or discharged to the environment. The treatmentremoves remaining inorganic compounds, and substances, such as the nitrogen and phosphorus.

What is the purpose of sedimentation?

The purpose of sedimentation is to enhance the filtration process by removing particulates. Sedimentation is the process by which suspended particles are removed from the water by means of gravity or separation.

A sedimentation tank allows suspended particles to settle out of water or wastewater as it flows slowly through the tank, thereby providing some degree of purification. A layer of accumulated solids, called sludge, forms at the bottom of the tank and is periodically removed.

What is screening in water treatment?

Screening is the first unit operation used at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Screening removes objects such as rags, paper, plastics, and metals to prevent damage and clogging of downstream equipment, piping, and appurtenances. Some modern wastewater treatment plants use both coarse screens and fine screens.

What is a grit removal?

Grit removal is the process used to remove sand, silt and grit from water. Grit (and sand) removal is often found in the headworks of wastewater treatment

What is the grit chamber?

Grit chambers are long narrow tanks that are designed to slow down the flow so that solids such as sand, coffee grounds, and eggshells will settle out of the water. Grit causes excessive wear and tear on pumps and other plant equipment.

What is the purpose of a settling tank?

Sedimentation basins, also called settling tanks or clarifiers, are large tanks in which water is made to flow very slowly in order to promote the sedimentation of particles or flocs. In water and Wastewater treatment plants, these are so large that they are situated outdoor and usually have an open surface.

What is hindered settling?

Definition of Hindered settling: settling at a reduced speed (relative to the settlingvelocity of a single particle) due to interactions with neighbouring particles (displaced water, collisions, group settling,...), usually expressed by an empirical correction as a function of the effective volumetric concentration.

What do you mean by sedimentation?

Sediment is the accumulation of sand and dirt that settles in the bottom of lakes. Sediment is also what you get in the bottom of a glass of iced tea when the sugar doesn't all dissolve. The noun sediment comes from the Latin word sedere, meaning “to settle,” or “sit.”

What is the process of sedimentation?

Sedimentation is a physical water treatment process using gravity to remove suspended solids from water. Solid particles entrained by the turbulence of moving water may be removed naturally by sedimentation in the still water of lakes and oceans.

What is Stoke's law?

Stokes' law and terminal velocity. When any object rises or falls through a fluid it will experience a viscous drag, whether it is a parachutist or spacecraft falling through air, a stone falling through water or a bubble rising through fizzy lemonade.

What is settling velocity?

If the particle is falling in the viscous fluid under its own weight due to gravity, then a terminal velocity, or settling velocity, is reached when this frictional force combined with the buoyant force exactly balances the gravitational force.

What is a sediment geology?

Sediment. (sěd'ə-mənt) Geology Solid fragmented material, such as silt, sand, gravel, chemical precipitates, and fossil fragments, that is transported and deposited by water, ice, or wind or that accumulates through chemical precipitation or secretion by organisms, and that forms layers on the Earth's surface.

What is a sediment filter?

Sediment filter. ... A sediment filter acts as a sieve to remove these particles. The important thing to keep in mind about sediment filters is that they reduce sediment. They don't remove chemicals or heavy metals or make the water taste or smell better. In general, sediment filters are rated by a "micron" number.

What is decantation and sedimentation?

A mixture of an insoluble solid in liquid is allowed to stand. The solid is insoluble and settles at the bottom if kept undisturbed for some time. This process is called sedimentation. ... A mixture of kerosene and water can also be separated through decantation.

What is in domestic wastewater?

There are three types of wastewater, or sewage: domestic sewage, industrial sewage, and storm sewage. Domestic sewage carries used water from houses and apartments; it is also called sanitary sewage. Industrial sewage is used water from manufacturing or chemical processes.

Raw sewage is mainly water containing excrement, industrial release and debris such as sanitary towels, condoms and plastic. Excrement is the major source of harmful microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and parasites.

How does sewage pollute the water?

The resulting water pollution causes the quality of the water to deteriorate and affects aquatic ecosystems. Pollutants can also seep downand effect groundwater deposits. Saida's sewage and industrial wastes are discharged into the rivers. Because of this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers, and other water bodies.

Why do we need to treat water?

Drinking water is treated to kill or inactivate any pathogenic micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, to remove inorganic and organic trace contaminants which have found their way into the water system because of pollution and to reduce the naturally occurring organic compounds such as humic acid

Where does the wastewater go to?

Water leaving our homes generally goes either into a septic tank in the back yard where it seeps back into the ground or is sent to a sewage-treatment plant through a sewer system.Dec 2, 2016

What is sanitary wastewater?

The sanitary sewer is a system of underground pipes that carries sewage from bathrooms, sinks, kitchens, and other plumbing components to a wastewatertreatment plant where it is filtered, treated and discharged. The storm sewer is a system designed to carry rainfall runoff and other drainage.

What is meant by waste water?

Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. Wastewater can originate from a combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and from sewer inflow or infiltration.

What is meant by sewage system?

A system of sewer pipes (sewers) collects sewage and takes it for treatment or disposal. The system of sewers is called sewerage or sewerage system (see London sewerage system) in British English and sewage system in American English.

What is the meaning of sewer?

Sewer may refer to: Part of sewerage, the infrastructure that conveys sewage. Sanitary sewer, a system of pipes used to transport sewage - several types of sanitary sewers can be distinguished. Storm drain, a collection and transportation system for storm water. Combined sewer.

How can water be treated?

As the water and the floc particles progress through the treatment process, they move into sedimentation basins where the water moves slowly, causing the heavy floc particles to settle to the bottom. Floc which collects on the bottom of the basin is called sludge, and is piped to drying lagoons.

What are the causes of water pollution?

Around half of all ocean pollution is caused by sewage and waste water. Each year, the world generates perhaps 5–10 billion tons of industrial waste, much of which is pumped untreated into rivers, oceans, and other waterways.Jun 5, 2016

What are some ways water can be polluted?

Infested with waste ranging from floating plastic bags to chemical waste, our waterbodies have turned into a pool of poison. The contamination of water bodies in simplest words means water pollution. Thereby the abuse of lakes, ponds, oceans, rivers, reservoirs etc is water pollution.

What are some of the consequences of water pollution?

The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills life that depends on these water bodies. Dead fish, crabs, birds and sea gulls, dolphins, and many other animals often wind up on beaches, killed by pollutants in their habitat (living environment). Pollution disrupts the natural food chain as well.

How does a water treatment plant works?

Most treatment plants were built to clean wastewater for discharge into streams or other receiving waters, or for reuse. Years ago, when sewage was dumped into waterways, a natural process of purification began. ... The basic function of wastewater treatment is to speed up the natural processes by which water is purified.

What is the coagulation and flocculation?

Coagulation-flocculation is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to sedimentation and filtration (e.g. rapid sand filtration ) to enhance the ability of a treatment process to remove particles. ... Treated Water.

What is the purpose of coagulation in water treatment?

Drinking Water Treatment - Coagulation. ... In coagulation, we add a chemical such as alum which produces positive charges to neutralize the negative charges on the particles. Then the particles can stick together, forming larger particles which are more easily removed.

What is meant by flocculation?

Flocculation is when microscopic particles bind together to form larger particles in liquids. It occurs naturally or artificially in water as well as other solutions. Flocculation is used in applications such as water purification, sewage treatment, cheese production, and brewing.

What is the process of coagulation?

Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair.

Flocculants, or flocculating agents (also known as flocking agents), are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate, forming a floc. Flocculants are used in water treatment processes to improve the sedimentation or filterability of small particles

Flocculation and coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering. Coagulants neutralize the negative electrical charge on particles, which destabilizes the forces keeping colloids apart.

What is Flocs in biology?

Process by which clumps of solids in water or sewage aggregate through biologicalor chemical action so they can be separated from water or sewage - Source. The process of forming floc particles when a chemical coagulant or flocculent such as alum or ferric chloride is added to the wastewater - Source.